Types of tenders pdf

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TENDER PROCESS AND DOCUMENTATION // General TENDERING PROCESS

Unanswered Questions. Interior Design. Wiki User There are three types of tendering methods used in construction industry! Open Tendering 2. Selective Tendering 3. Negotiated Tendering. Open tender is an arrangement where an advertisement in local newspapers or trade journals invites contractors to apply for tender documents. A deposit is usually required to ensure that only serious offers are made; Presumably it is needed to cover the cost of copying the documents. Local authorities have been advised against open tendering because it often leads to excessive tender lists where the cost of abortive tendering is considerable.

There are instances of selection criteria being applied after the tender has been submitted, so a bid could be rejected if a contractor does not belong to an approved trade association. Advantages of Open Tender The main advantage of such tendering is as follow: Give high level of competition and contractors tend to give best prices as compare to other tendering method There is no list of restrictive tenderer, which does not allow favoritism It is very transparent process which ensures that only the contractor with the best price and meeting all the technical requirements will win the tender.

This process is usually manage by procurement board where its staff are trained for such exercises and board ensure that all the procedures involved in tender are followed. Disadvantages of Open Tender The low price usually detriment of quality and often result in the client obtaining poor quality job and late completion of work. Given that its open tender and thus there are no restrictions on the number of contractor who can bid and become bulky and lengthy job for tender analyses which often result in delays and high cost.

Selective tender: Selective tendering consists of drawing up a list of chosen firms and asking them to tender.Home Construction Law Made Easy Constructionary Contact Us Onsite News Hub In this chapter: what is tendering common types of tender processes usual steps in a tender process tender process contracts managing the main risks of tendering.

Home Construction Law Made Easy Chapter 3 - Tendering common types of tender processes Common types of tender processes There are three common tender processes.

Request for tender RFT This process is the most common. It is used when: the scope of the required supply is known; price is the most important selection criteria; documentation and contract conditions have been finalised; and little or no negotiation is required.

Request for proposal RFP RFPs are more often used when there are elements of uncertainty to a project, this may include: technology or procedures are new or being used in new applications; documentation has been developed but not finalised; the scope of the market is not fully known; or a purchaser is looking for innovative options. Negotiations usually take place with one or more proponents before a contract is entered into.

Request for an expression of interest REOI This process is more often used when: the scope or identity of the potential market is not known; feasibility is still being tested; a small number of better suppliers can be identified early to save the cost of assessing a lot of tenders ; documents have not been fully developed and market input is needed; or there may be useful, but unknown, technologies in the market.

types of tenders pdf

A short list of potential contractors are then invited to submit full tenders or proposals. Common types of tender processes.

Different Types of Contracts: Everything You Need to Know

There are three common tender processes. Request for tender RFT. This process is the most common. It is used when:. Request for proposal RFP. RFPs are more often used when there are elements of uncertainty to a project, this may include:. Request for an expression of interest REOI. This process is more often used when:.Why don't fictional characters say "goodbye" when they hang up a phone?

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If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.

Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Business and Industry. Bridges and Tunnels. Home Construction. Google Sketchup. Wiki User There are three types of tendering methods used in construction industry!

Open Tendering 2. Selective Tendering 3. Negotiated Tendering. Open tender is an arrangement where an advertisement in local newspapers or trade journals invites contractors to apply for tender documents. A deposit is usually required to ensure that only serious offers are made; Presumably it is needed to cover the cost of copying the documents. Local authorities have been advised against open tendering because it often leads to excessive tender lists where the cost of abortive tendering is considerable.

There are instances of selection criteria being applied after the tender has been submitted, so a bid could be rejected if a contractor does not belong to an approved trade association.

Advantages of Open Tender The main advantage of such tendering is as follow: Give high level of competition and contractors tend to give best prices as compare to other tendering method There is no list of restrictive tenderer, which does not allow favoritism It is very transparent process which ensures that only the contractor with the best price and meeting all the technical requirements will win the tender.

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This process is usually manage by procurement board where its staff are trained for such exercises and board ensure that all the procedures involved in tender are followed. Disadvantages of Open Tender The low price usually detriment of quality and often result in the client obtaining poor quality job and late completion of work.

Given that its open tender and thus there are no restrictions on the number of contractor who can bid and become bulky and lengthy job for tender analyses which often result in delays and high cost.

Selective tender: Selective tendering consists of drawing up a list of chosen firms and asking them to tender. It is by far the most common arrangement because it allows price to be the deciding criterion; all other selection factors will have been dealt with at the pre-qualification stage. There are three ways in which selective tendering lists are drawn up: An advertisement may produce several interested contractors and suitable Firms are selected to tender.

The consultants may contact those they would wish to put on an ad-hoc list. Many local authorities and national bodies keep approved lists of contractors in certain categories, such as work type and cost range.

Contractors who ask to be included on select lists of tenderer are usually asked to provide information about their financial and technical performance, particularly about the type of work under consideration.

The National Joint Consultative Committee for Building NJCC has written the 'Standard form of tendering questionnaire - private edition' so contractors can prepare answers to relevant questions in advance.

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The questions mainly deal with projects carried out during the previous three years. Once the form has been completed, it can be used for specific projects or for those compiling lists of selected contractors.

Ngotiated Tender :under this method normally one contractor is approached and such tender mainly used for specialist work such as lift system or airport project at big level, in such case there are limited number of contractor who do such work in the market. Asked in Technology, Computers, Electronics Different types of central processing unit to ?

types of tenders pdf

Asked in Concrete and Cement What are the types of cement processing? There are two types of cement process, Dry process Wet process There are two types of cement processing, Dry process Wet process. Asked in Database Programming What are the types of computer data processing?FAR Smart Matrix. Chapter 99 CAS. DOD Deviations. Subpart Parent topic: Federal Acquisition Regulation. This part describes types of contracts that may be used in acquisitions. It prescribes policies and procedures and provides guidance for selecting a contract type appropriate to the circumstances of the acquisition.

Award-Fee Board means the team of individuals identified in the award-fee plan who have been designated to assist the Fee-Determining Official in making award-fee determinations.

Fee-Determining Official FDO means the designated Agency official s who reviews the recommendations of the Award-Fee Board in determining the amount of award fee to be earned by the contractor for each evaluation period. Rollover of unearned award fee means the process of transferring unearned award fee, which the contractor had an opportunity to earn, from one evaluation period to a subsequent evaluation period, thus allowing the contractor an additional opportunity to earn that previously unearned award fee.

Contract types vary according to. The specific contract types range from firm-fixed-price, in which the contractor has full responsibility for the performance costs and resulting profit or lossto cost-plus-fixed-fee, in which the contractor has minimal responsibility for the performance costs and the negotiated fee profit is fixed.

Negotiating the contract type and negotiating prices are closely related and should be considered together. The objective is to negotiate a contract type and price or estimated cost and fee that will result in reasonable contractor risk and provide the contractor with the greatest incentive for efficient and economical performance. However, when a reasonable basis for firm pricing does not exist, other contract types should be considered, and negotiations should be directed toward selecting a contract type or combination of types that will appropriately tie profit to contractor performance.

In particular, contracting officers should avoid protracted use of a cost-reimbursement or time-and-materials contract after experience provides a basis for firmer pricing. This shall be documented in the acquisition plan, or in the contract file if a written acquisition plan is not required by agency procedures. A How the Government identified the additional risks e.

Common types of tender processes

B The nature of the additional risks e. C How the Government will manage and mitigate the risks. A An analysis of why the use of other than a firm-fixed-price contract e. B Rationale that detail the particular facts and circumstances e. C An assessment regarding the adequacy of Government resources that are necessary to properly plan for, award, and administer other than firm-fixed-price contracts; and.

D A discussion of the actions planned to minimize the use of other than firm-fixed-price contracts on future acquisitions for the same requirement and to transition to firm-fixed-price contracts to the maximum extent practicable.

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There are many factors that the contracting officer should consider in selecting and negotiating the contract type. They include the following:. Price analysis, with or without competition, may provide a basis for selecting the contract type. The degree to which price analysis can provide a realistic pricing standard should be carefully considered. See In the absence of effective price competition and if price analysis is not sufficient, the cost estimates of the offeror and the Government provide the bases for negotiating contract pricing arrangements.

It is essential that the uncertainties involved in performance and their possible impact upon costs be identified and evaluated, so that a contract type that places a reasonable degree of cost responsibility upon the contractor can be negotiated.

Complex requirements, particularly those unique to the Government, usually result in greater risk assumption by the Government.A contract can be anything from a formal written document to a simple handshake deal to do a job where the only thing in writing is a quote on the back of an envelope. Whatever its form, if you agree to provide a service to a hirer for money, you have entered into a contract.

The agreement may be enforced in court. Written contracts provide more certainty for both parties than verbal contracts. They clearly set out the details of what was agreed. Matters that can be set out in a contract include:. A written contract will give you more certainty and minimise your business risks by making the agreement clear from the outset. When a contract is not in writing, you are exposing yourself and your business to a number of risks including the risk that:.

It's always better to have your contract in writing, no matter how small the job is. Any contract with a hirer that involves a significant risk to your business should always be carefully considered and put in writing.

This is advisable even if it means delaying the start of the work. A written contract is essential:. Many contracting arrangements use verbal contracts, which only work well if there are no disputes. A handshake agreement may still be a contract and may though often with difficulty be enforced by a court. However, verbal contracts can lead to uncertainty about each party's rights and obligations.

A dispute may arise if you have nothing in writing explaining what you both agreed to do. Some agreements may be only partly verbal. For example, there may be supporting paperwork such as a quote or a list of specifications that also forms part of the contract.

At the very least, you should write down the main points that you agreed with the hirer to avoid relying on memory. Keep any paperwork associated with the contract. The paperwork can be used later in discussions with the hirer to try to resolve a problem.

If the dispute becomes serious, it may be used as evidence in court. The most important thing is that each party clearly understands what work will be done, when it will be completed and how much will be paid for the work. If the contract is only partly written or the terms of the work are set out in a number of separate documents email, quote etc. Often, these are printed with a few blank spaces for filling in information such as names, dates and signatures.

An Ultimate Guide to E-tendering Process in India

Standard form contracts often include a lot of legal 'fine print' and terms that you may not understand. They tend to be one-sided documents that mostly benefit the person who prepared the contract for example, by shifting as much risk as possible to the contractor. If you don't understand the fine print or any other part of the contract, you should get advice.

If you sign the contract, you will be required to comply with the fine print, even if you didn't actually read it. Read the fine print carefully and get advice about any terms you don't understand before you sign. Once you sign a contract you are bound by all of its terms. Don't leave any spaces blank. If you don't need to fill in a blank space, always cross it out so the contract can't be changed after you sign it.

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You have the right to negotiate any contract before signing, including a standard form contract. But remember that both parties must agree to any changes and record them in the contract you sign. Your union, industry association or a lawyer can help you prepare for negotiations. You should always have a copy of any contract you sign. If this isn't possible, ask for a photocopy and check that it is an exact copy. Remember to keep your copy somewhere safe for future reference.

Different Types Of Procurement Contracts: Everything You Need to Know

Some independent contractors and hirers use a 'period contract'.Procurement contracts are the agreements to use certain products and services on a project. The types of procurement contracts and are typically either fixed-price, cost-reimbursable, or time and materials. Some agreements can include more than one of these payment structures on a single procurement contract. The process of procurement management allows you to find the right contractors and suppliers for the goods and services you need for your project.

Using the right type of procurement contract can have a significant impact on a project's success since each type of procurement contract comes with specific benefits and downsides. The procurement manager is responsible for analyzing the scope of the project to determine whether it can be completed using internal resources or whether outside vendors will need to be hired.

types of tenders pdf

Needs that must be outsourced will be subject to the formal procurement process. For example, a telecommunications company may outsource invoice creation to a printing vendor who can create these forms and mail them to subscribers. Both buyers and sellers in an organization should understand the formal procurement process. Procurement contracts are used across almost all industries and businesses. While private companies have flexibility when it comes to procurement, government agencies must comply with specific rules and regulations because they are spending public funds.

Ideally, procurement results in obtaining appropriate goods and services that meet standards for time, location, quality, and quantity at the best possible cost. Procurement can involve buying hardware, equipment, or other goods needed for a project, or it can require hiring a consult or service provider.

Before beginning the procurement process, determine whether the benefits of procurement outweigh those of completing the project in-house. Procurement is the best option to save the time, money, and stress involved in training employees to conduct a task in which they are not experienced. It makes more sense to hire an expert and have the job done right. Procurement allows your venture to focus on its core business and to outsource tasks that fall outside that mission.

While businesses once completed everything they needed independently, doing so can be impractical and cause you to accrue significant costs and to develop a substandard product, both of which are bad for your company. For this reason, your company should establish a procurement management process to find the best vendors and suppliers and to negotiate beneficial contracts that account for the interests of both parties. Like other contracts, a procurement contract legally binds two or more parties, typically a buyer and a seller.

Contracts detail the terms and conditions of a particular project. Forming a contract inaccurately can cost you money over time. If a contract is inadequate, you may need to spend money to get the other party to legally comply or pay extra because you opted for a time and materials procurement contract instead of one with a fixed price. The procurement manager is responsible for selecting the best contract for a particular project. Procurement contracts are categorized into the following types and subtypes:.A contract is an agreement between two entities or individuals, which serves as legal protection for both parties involved in a potential business deal.

There are different types of contracts, and each determines the rights and duties of both sides. A specific type of contract regulates the risks and expenses for the contractor.

Two different kinds of groups of contracts are fixed price contracts and cost-reimbursement contracts. Different types of contracts, which are contained within each of these two types of groups, may be used separately or in combination with one another. A lump sum or fixed price contract is the type of contract where all construction-related activities are regulated with a total fixed price agreement. Lump sum contracts are favored in situations when a clear scope and a defined schedule is negotiated and accepted.

For example, if it is necessary to shift the liability to the builder and to prevent changes in orders for undetermined work, this type of contract is best suitable for the situation.

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Due to present risk, a contractor holds some percentage cost. It is essential to consider that if the lump sum contract was signed, it would be challenging to obtain any credit back for an uncompleted job. Before the negotiations begin, a specific expense amount must be included in cost plus types of contracts. These amounts represent a percentage of the material and labor costs, which cover the continuing costs of operation and the contractor's profit.

Time and materials contracts are types of contracts used in a case where:. Periodically, the owner can determine a duration of the project with a contractor, which must be performed to reduce the risk to a minimum. The downfall of this type of contracts is that the seller can increase an indefinite or unknown expense amount, which is the cost the buyer has to pay.

Unit pricing contracts can be adjusted during the process in which the owner offers certain quantities and prices for the predetermined number of items. Both parties involved in a bilateral contract promise to implement certain things. In a unilateral contractone party, which is the bidder, requires performance from the other party rather than a promise. An offeree cannot be sued for:.

This is because he or she did not make a promise. Therefore, only the bidder is required by law to comply. During formation of the express contractparties are forming conditions either orally or in writing. This offer is wholly accepted with the terms of an offeree. A simple contract is any kind of written or oral agreement.


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